Legal and regulatory frameworks
Important CRVS laws
A legal framework for civil registration plays an important role in delivering the basic human rights set out in United Nations declarations, covenants and resolutions. These include the right of all individuals to be registered, the right to be given an identity from birth to death, the right of a child to know the names of their parents, the right to non-discrimination by reason of birth, and the right of a child to a nationality.
The most notable declarations, covenants and resolutions are:
- The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. Articles 6 and 15 establish the right to recognition as a person before the law, and that everyone has a right to a nationality.
- The Declaration of the Rights of the Child, proclaimed in 1959. Principle 3 states that all children are entitled to a name and nationality from birth.
- The Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1961. Article 1 provides for the ability of states to grant their nationality to persons who would otherwise be stateless.
- The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted in 1966 and The Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted in 1989. Both conventions establish the right of every child to be registered after birth, and have a name and nationality.
- The UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, 2004. Principle 20 provides for the right to recognition before the law for every human being.
By introducing civil registration and supporting it with proper legislation, countries are automatically enacting these aspects of international human rights legislation.
Republic of the Northern Marianas Commonwealth (2006). Vital Statistics Act of 2006.