Accuracy of register-based vital statistics
The degree to which data items on the statistical report have been correctly and completely filled out with no errors introduced during transcription of vital records data into the statistical report, or during the processing stages (including coding, editing, input and tabulation).
In some legal systems, an item of 'primary legislation' (law passed in parliament) is known as an act after enactment.
Analysis of causes of (national) death for action (ANACONDA) is an electronic tool that assesses the accuracy and completeness of mortality and cause of death data.
This step in business process mapping involves outlining your plan for change after identifying existing gaps in your as-is process.
Attendant at birth
Automated classification of medical entities (ACME)
See 'live birth'
Born in wedlock
Born out of wedlock
Capture - recapture
A type of method that can be used to assess the completeness of registration. Two independent sources of data are used to identify births or deaths, with subsequent determination made of the proportion of cases identified by the second method that were also identified by the first. From this information, the total number of cases can be estimated using mathematical models. Although capture-recapture methods can be used to help monitor trends over time, this assumes closed populations (that is, low rates of migration).
Causes of death
All diseases, morbid conditions or injuries that either resulted in or contributed to death, and the circumstances of the accident or violence that produced any such injuries. Symptoms or modes of dying (such as heart failure or asthenia) are not considered to be causes of death for vital statistics purposes (see 'underlying cause of death').
Certification of cause of death
Certifier (of cause of death)
Civil registration system
The institutional, legal and technical settings established by government to conduct civil registration in a technical, sound, coordinated and standardised manner throughout country, taking into account cultural and social circumstances particular to the country (see 'civil registration and vital statistics system').
Completed fertility rate
Completeness of civil registration
Crude birth rate
Crude death rate
A means of providing at-a-glance views of key performance indicators. Data dashboards are typically limited to showing summaries, key trends, comparisons and exceptions.
Facilitates the effective checking and preservation of a data set and ensures that the research community will be able to use the data. For more information, please see the Data Documentation Initiative at: ddialliance.org
Date of birth
Date of occurrence
Date of registration
The permanent disappearance of all evidence of life at any time after live birth has taken place (postnatal cessation of vital functions without capability of resuscitation). This definition excludes fetal death.
Demographic surveillance system
Evaluation of a civil registration (or vital statistics) system
Geographic information systems (GIS)
A way to describe the processes for making and implementing decisions.
Ill-defined cause of death
International Statistical Classification of Diseasee and Related Health Problems, tenth revision (ICD-10)
Iris is an automated, interactive mortality coding system, which codes multiple causes of death and selects the underlying cause of death for statistical tabulation.
Legal framework for civil registration and vital statistics
The death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days after the termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management, but not from accidental or incidental causes.
Maternal mortality ratio
A vital statistics rate based on the number of deaths due to maternal causes relative to the number of live births occurring during a given period of time, usually a calendar year. Typically expressed as the number of deaths of women resulting from (a) direct obstetric complications of pregnancy, labour and the puerperium; (b) from interventions, omissions or incorrect treatments or their results; or (c) from indirect obstetric causes resulting from previously existing disease or disease arising during pregnancy and which was not due to direct obstetric causes but which was aggravated by the physiological effects of the pregnancy, occurring in a given geographical area during a given calendar year per 100,000 (or 10,000) live births occurring in the given geographical area during the same year.
See 'certification of cause of death'.
The movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a semi-permanent residence. External migration is a move from a residential unit in the demographic surveillance area to one outside it, and internal migration is a move from one residential unit to another the same demographic surveillance area.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Eight social, health and economic development goals endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly in 2000.
Mode of death
The way a person died; for example, 'respiratory failure'. To write this on a death certificate is not sufficient because it does not indicate what disease or condition caused the death.
Monitoring of a civil registration system (or a vital statistics system)
The frequency of disease, illness, injuries and disabilities in a population.
The issuance by an appropriate authority (such as a health careworker) of a form confirming a vital event (birth or death). Often this notification form is used by the family to report the event to the civil registration office. It can also be required to obtain a burial permit in the case of a death. This form does not have the legal status of a birth or death certificate.
Perinatal mortality rate
The number of fetal deaths after 28 weeks of pregnancy (late fetal deaths) is the number of deaths of infants under 7 days of age per 1000 live births.
Personal identification number (PIN)
The number or other code used to uniquely identify a person in population database or any other administrative register. The use of a unique identifier for each person IDs, duplicate entries and errors in respect to a person's identity.
A mechanism for the continuous recording of selected information pertaining to each member of the resident population of a country or area, resulting in up-to-date information on the size and characteristics of the population at selected points in time. Because of the nature of the population register, both its organisation and operation should have a legal basis. Population registers start with a base consisting of an inventory of the inhabitants of an area and their characteristics (such as date of birth, sex, marital status, place of birth, place of residence, citizenship and language). To help in locating a record for a particular person, household or family in a population register, rare unique identification number is provided for each entity.
The population register can contain other socioeconomic data, such as occupation or educational level. The population register should be updated with the births, deaths, marriages and divorces recorded by the civil registration system of the country. The population register is also updated using migration records. Thus, notifications of certain events, which may have been recorded originally in different administrative systems, are automatically linked to a population register on an ongoing basis. The method and sources of updating should cover all changes to ensure that the characteristics of individuals in the register remain current.
Probability of dying
Quality of data
See 'usual residence'.
Sample registration system
Sample vital registration with verbal autopsy (SAVVY)
The MEASURE Evaluation project based at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the United States Census Bureau has produced a series of SAVVY manuals for mortality surveillance (available here).
Small-area data estimation
Start up Mortality List (SMoL)
SMoL was developed by WHO in collaboration with the University of Oslo for collecting cause of death (COD) information. SMoL contains a simplified list of 106 CODs that physicians can use to certify the COD.
Statistical reporting of vital event data
A canvassing of selected individuals or households in a population usually used to infer demographic characteristics or trends for a larger segment or for all of the population (see 'census').
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) agenda is an Action Agenda unanimously agreed by the UN Member States at a high-level UN summit in September 2015. The 17 SDGs considerably expand the scope and ambition of their precursor, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of 2001.
The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is applicable to all countries until the year 2030. It aims to ensure ‘No One is Left Behind’ in global sustainable development efforts, regardless of who they are and where they live.
Timeliness in register-based vital statistics
For every vital event registered within the interval specified by legislation, a statistical report form must be forwarded to the agency responsible for the compilation of vital statistics within the established time schedule of the vital statistics system. In addition, the production, publication and dissemination of the vital statistics must be prompt enough to serve the needs of users.
Timeliness in registration
Underlying cause of death
Usual place of residence
Verbal autopsy (VA)
Vital event record
Vital statistical record
Summary measures of the frequency of occurrence and relevant characteristics of specified and defined vital events derived from civil registration, enumeration and other sources of vital events data. In settings where civil registration functions poorly or not at all, the United Nations acknowledges that a variety of data sources and systems are used to derive vital statistics.