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CRVS peer-reviewed publications
Developed through the Bloomberg Philanthropies Data for Health Initiative at the University of Melbourne, papers in this series focus on filling a range of scientific knowledge gaps and offering new approaches for CRVS system and data improvement.


Addressing critical knowledge and capacity gaps to sustain CRVS system development thumbnail
Addressing critical knowledge and capacity gaps to sustain CRVS system development

This paper discusses the need for any strategy aimed at building CRVS workforce capacity to be underpinned by a repository of knowledge and body of evidence on CRVS and targeted strategies to train the CRVS workforce.

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Authors: Adair, T, Richards, N, Streatfield, A, Rajasekhar, M, McLaughlin, D, Lopez, A

Publication date: March 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Medicine


ANACONDA: a new tool to improve mortality and cause of death data thumbnail
ANACONDA: a new tool to improve mortality and cause of death data

This paper discusses the utility of the ANACONDA tool for countries looking to improve the reliability and timeliness of their mortality data.

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Authors: Mikkelsen, L, Moesgaard, K, Hegnauer, M, Lopez, A

Publication date: March 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Medicine


Thumbnail for paper: Are cause of death data fit for purpose_20 countries
Are cause of death data fit for purpose? Evidence from 20 countries at different levels of socio-economic development

Many countries have used the new ANACONDA tool to assess the quality of their cause of death data (COD), but no cross-country analysis has been done to verify how different or similar patterns of diagnostic errors and data quality are in countries or how they are related to the local cultural or epidemiological environment or to levels of development. The study assesses whether the usability of COD data and the patterns of unusable codes are related to a country’s level of socio-economic development.

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Authors: Iburg, K M, Mikkelsen, L, Adair, T, Lopez, A D

Publication date: August 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: PLoS ONE


Automated verbal autopsy: from research to routine use in civil registration and vital statistics systems thumbnail
Automated verbal autopsy: from research to routine use in civil registration and vital statistics systems

This paper reports on the application of the SmartVA tool for the collection and analysis of COD data in four countries (Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Bangladesh, Philippines), as part of routine CRVS activities.

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Authors: Hazard, R, Buddhika, M, Hart, J, Chowdhury, H, Firth, S, Joshi, R, Avelina, F, Segarra, A, Sarmiento, D C, Azad, A K, Ashrafi, S A A, Bo, K S, Kwa, V, Lopez, A 

Publication date: March 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Medicine


Better data for better outcomes: the importance of process mapping and management in CRVS systems thumbnail
Better data for better outcomes: the importance of process mapping and management in CRVS systems

This paper discusses the importance of process management to strengthen the efficiency and quality of CRVS systems, presenting experiences from countries supported through the Bloomberg Philanthropies Data for Health Initiative at the University of Melbourne.

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Authors: Cobos Muñoz, D, de Savigny, D, Sorchik, R, Bo, K S, Hart, J, Kwa, V, Ngomituje, X, Richards, N, Lopez, A D

Publication date: March 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Medicine


CRVS and health
Civil registration and vital statistics in health systems

Over the past decades, the health sector has forged a widespread network of health facilities and community health workers who carry out key public health interventions, aiming to reach the most marginalized populations with life-saving interventions. In many countries, health networks offer untapped potential to leverage health services for the notification and registration of births and deaths.

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Authors: Jackson D, Wenz K, Muniz M, Abouzahr C, Schmider A, Braschi MW, Kassam N, Diaz T, Mwamba R, Setel P, Mills S

Publication date: December 2018

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.213090


Thumbnail image for Christopher Sanga Fellowship paper
Decentralization of birth registration to Local Government in Tanzania: the association with completeness of birth registration and certification

In Tanzania, only an estimated one-quarter of births are registered and certified. This study compares completeness of birth registration and certification and achievement of key birth registration milestones in two districts where the birth registration system is decentralized, and two districts with the existing centralized system. This paper is the outcome of a CRVS Fellowship completed by Christopher Sanga.

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Authors: Christopher Sanga, Gregory Kabadi, Emilian Karugendo, Don de Savigny, Daniel Cobos Muñoz
and Tim Adair

Publication date: October 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: Global Health Action


Thumbnail_#262_EpiTransition_PNG_SI
Diversity of epidemiological transition in the Pacific: Findings from the application of verbal autopsy in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands

Cause of death data are essential for rational health planning yet are not routinely available in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Solomon Islands. Indirect estimation of cause of death patterns suggests these populations are epidemiologically similar, but such assessments are not based on direct evidence. Verbal autopsy (VA) interviews were conducted at three sites in PNG and nationwide in Solomon Islands. Training courses were also facilitated to improve data from medical certificates of cause of death (MCCODs) in both countries. Data were categorised into broad groups of endemic and emerging conditions to aid assessment of the epidemiological transition.

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Authors: Hart J D, Mahesh, P K B, Kwa, V, Reeve, M, Chowdhury, H R, Jilini, G, Jagilly, R, Kamoriki, B, Ruskin, R, Dakulala, P, Ripa, P, Frank, D, Lei, T, Adair, T, McLaughlin, D, Riley, I D, Lopez  A D

Publication date: June 2021

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific [creative commons attribution license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/]


Thumbnail_MCCOD training interventions
Effectiveness of training interventions to improve quality of medical certification of cause of death: systematic review and meta-analysis

Valid cause of death data are essential for health policy formation. The quality of medical certification of cause of death (MCCOD) by physicians directly affects the utility of cause of death data for public policy and hospital management. Whilst training in correct certification has been provided for physicians and medical students, the impact of training is often unknown. This study was conducted to systematically review and meta-analyse the effectiveness of training interventions to improve the quality of MCCOD.

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Authors: Gamage, U S H, Mahesh, P K B, Schnall, J, Mikkelsen, L, Hart, J, Chowdhury, H, Li, H, McLaughlin, D, Lopez, A D

Publication date: December 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Medicine


Thumbnail_#174_SmartVAChina
Estimating causes of out-of-hospital deaths in China: application of SmartVA methods

This study applied verbal using the SmartVA tool to a sample of home deaths in China to explore its feasibility as a means of improving the quality of cause of death data.

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Authors: Qi, J, Adair, T, Chowdhury, H R, Li, H, McLaughlin, D, Liu, Y, Liu, J, Zeng, X, You, J, Firth, S, Sorchik, R, Yin, P, Wang, L, Zhou, M, Lopez, A D

Publication date: May 2021

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: Population Health Metrics [creative commons attribution license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/]


Thumbnail_Fellow report_Marli and Luiz
Estimating completeness of national and subnational death reporting in Brazil: application of record linkage methods

In Brazil, both the Civil Registry (CR) and Ministry of Health (MoH) Mortality Information System (SIM) are sources of routine mortality data, but neither is 100% complete. This study links deaths from these to facilitate an estimation of completeness of mortality reporting and measurement of adjusted mortality indicators using generalised linear modeling (GLM).

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Author: Luiz Fernando Lima Costa, Marli de Mesquita Silva Montenegro, Dacio de Lyra Rabello Neto, Antonio Tadeu Ribeiro de Oliveira, Jose Eduardo de Oliveira Trindade, Tim Adair and Maria de Fatima Marinho

Publication date: September 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication


Strengthening mortality data for health policy and planning: the Bloomberg Data for Health Initiative in Latin America (Portuguese) thumbnail
Fortalecimento dos dados de mortalidade para políticas e planejamento de saúde: a Iniciativa Bloomberg para a Saúde na América Latina thumbnail
Fortalecimento dos dados de mortalidade para políticas e planejamento de saúde: a Iniciativa Bloomberg para a Saúde na América Latina

Portuguese translation of paper: Strengthening mortality data for health policy and planning: the Bloomberg Data for Health Initiative in Latin America. This paper charts efforts and outcomes achieved through the Bloomberg Data for Health Initiative to improve mortality data in four Latin American countries since 2014: Brazil, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia.

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Authors: McLaughlin, D and Lopez, A

Publication date: December 2019

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Related resources: Strengthening mortality data for health policy and planning: the Bloomberg Data for Health Initiative in Latin America [English] 

Source: Rev. bras. epidemiol. vol.22  supl.3 Rio de Janeiro  2019  Epub Dec 05, 2019


Thumbnail_#206_AgeSpecificMortalityStats
Generating age-specific mortality statistics from incomplete death registration data: two applications of the empirical completeness method

This study aims to assess two approaches that apply the empirical completeness method to generate age-specific mortality statistics from incomplete death registration systems.

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Authors: Adair, T, Lopez, A D

Publication date: June 2021

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: Population Health Metrics [creative commons attribution license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/]


Thumbnail_#175_EpiPNG
How advanced is the epidemiological transition in Papua New Guinea? New evidence from verbal autopsy

Reliable cause of death (COD) data are not available for the majority of deaths in Papua New Guinea (PNG), despite their critical policy value. Automated verbal autopsy (VA) methods, involving an interview and automated analysis to diagnose causes of community deaths, have recently been trialled in PNG. This paper reports on VA results from three sites and highlight the utility of these methods to generate information about the leading CODs in the country.

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Authors: Hart, J D, Kwa, V, Dakulala, P, Ripa, P, Frank, D, Golpak, V, Adair, T, McLaughlin, D, Riley, I D, Lopez, A D

Publication date: May 2021

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: International Journal of Epidemiology [creative commons attribution license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/]


WHOBulletin
How can we accelerate progress on civil registration and vital statistics?

The first in a series of papers published by the WHO Bulletin looking at how the health sector can contribute towards strengthening CRVS systems and increasing birth and death registration coverage.

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Authors: AbouZahr C, Bratschi MW, Cobos Munoz D, Santon R, Richards N, Riley I, Setel P

Publication date: April 2018

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.211086


Thumbnail_#279_BirthRegCompleness
How reliable are self-reported estimates of birth registration completeness? Comparison with vital statistics systems

The widely-used estimates of completeness of birth registration collected by Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and published by UNICEF primarily rely on the registration status of children as reported by respondents. However, these self-reported estimates may be inaccurate when compared with completeness as assessed from nationally reported official birth registration statistics, for several reasons, including over-reporting of registration due to concern about penalties for non-registration. This study assesses the concordance of self-reported birth registration and certification completeness with completeness calculated from civil registration and vital statistics systems data for 57 countries.

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Thumbnail_#214_SmartVAPhilippines
Improving cause of death certification in the Philippines: implementation of an electronic verbal autopsy decision support tool (SmartVA auto-analyse) to aid physician diagnoses of out-of-facility deaths

The majority of deaths in the Philippines occur out-of-facility and require a medical certificate of cause of death by Municipal Health Officers (MHOs) for burial. MHOs lack a standardised certification process for out-of-facility deaths and when no medical records are available, certify a high proportion of ill-defined causes of death. This study aimed to develop and introduce SmartVA Auto-Analyse, a verbal autopsy (VA) based electronic decision support tool in order to assist the MHOs in certifying out-of-facility deaths.

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Authors: Joshi, R, Hazard, R H, Mahesh, P K B, Mikkelsen, L, Avelino, F, Sarmiento, D C, Segarra, A, Timbang, T, Sinson, F, Diango, P, Riley, I, Chowdhury, H, Asuncion, I L, Khanom, G, Lopez, A D 

Publication date: March 2021

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Public Health [creative commons attribution license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/]


WHO Bulletin: Improving coverage of civil registration and vital statistics, Bangladesh thumbnail
Improving coverage of civil registration and vital statistics, Bangladesh

In 2016, the government of Bangladesh introduced a pilot project to strengthen the civil registration and vital statistics system and generate cause of death data in Kaliganj Upazila. This paper presents the relevant changes and lessons learnt resulting from this intervention.

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Author: Moyeen Uddin, Shah Ali Akbar Ashrafi, Abul Kalam Azad, Anir Chowdhury, Hafizur Rahman Chowdhury, Ian Douglas Riley, Andres Montes, Martin Bratschi, Carla AbouZahr & Zeaul Alam

Publication date: September 2019

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Related resources: CRVS country overview: Bangladesh


Improving medical certification of cause of death: effective strategies and approaches based on experiences from the Data for Health Initiative thumbnail
Improving medical certification of cause of death: effective strategies and approaches based on experiences from the Data for Health Initiative

Accurate completion of the medical certificate of cause of death should be a relatively straightforward procedure for physicians, but mistakes are common. This paper presents three training strategies implemented in five countries supported by the Bloomberg Philanthropies Data for Health (D4H) Initiative at the University of Melbourne (UoM) and evaluate the impact on the quality of certification.

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Authors: Hart, J, Sorchik, R, Bo, K S, Chowdhury, H R, Gamage, S, Joshi, R, Kwa, V, Li, H, Mahesh, B, McLaughlin, D, Mikkelsen, L, Miki, J, Napulan, R, Rampatige, R, Reeve, M, Sarmiento, C, War, N S, Richards, N, Riley, I D, Lopez, A D

Publication date: March 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Medicine


Improving the quality of cause of death data for public health policy: are all 'garbage' codes equally problematic? thumbnail
Improving the quality of cause of death data for public health policy: are all 'garbage' codes equally problematic?

Commentary on a classification of garbage codes that helps to identify codes unhelpful for public health policy and which are used frequently by physicians to certify deaths. This typology can be used by countries to identify the pattern and extent of garbage coding in their cause of death data.

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Authors: Neghavi, M, Richards, N, Chowdhury, H, Eynstone-Hinkins, J, Franca, E, Hegnauer, M, Khosravi, A, Moran, L, Mikkelsen, L, Lopez, A D

Publication date: March 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Medicine


Integrating community-based verbal autopsy into CRVS: System-level considerations
Integrating community-based verbal autopsy into CRVS: System-level considerations

This document provides recommendations for integrating VA processes into CRVS, which involves consideration of system-wide integration issues.

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Authors: de Savigny D, Riley I, Chandramohan D, Odhiambo F, Nichols E, Notzon S, AbouZahr C, Mitra R, Cobos Munoz D, Firth S, Maire N, Sankoh O, Bronson G, Setel P, Byass P, Jakob P, Boerma T, Lopez AD

Publication date: January 2017

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Related resources: Summary: Integrating verbal autopsy into CRVS systems

Source: Global Health Action


Investigation of garbage code deaths to improve the quality of cause of death in Brazil thumbnail
Investigation of garbage code deaths to improve the quality of cause-of-death in Brazil: results from a pilot study

Reliable cause-of-death statistics are an important source of information on trends and differentials in population health. In Brazil, the Mortality Information System is responsible for compiling cause of death data. Despite the success in reducing R-codes ill-defined causes of death, other garbage codes, classified as causes that cannot be the underlying cause of death, according to the Global Burden of Disease study, remain a challenge. The Ministry of Health aims to decrease the proportion of all garbage codes, and a pilot study tested a comprehensive strategy to investigate garbage code deaths that occurred in 2015. This paper, a CRVS Fellowship project, presents the results of this pilot study.

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Authors: Barbosa de Lima, R, Frederes, A, Marinho, M, Candida de Cunha, C, Adair, T, Barboza Franca, E

Publication date: November 2019

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: Rev. bras. epidemiol. [online]. 2019, vol.22, suppl.3


Thumbnail image for death registration completeness in China
Measuring the completeness of death registration in 2844 Chinese counties in 2018

Death registration completeness has never been assessed at the county level in China. This paper, published in BMC Medicine, estimates the completeness of death registration for 31 provinces and 2844 counties of China in 2018 based on death data from the China Cause of Death Reporting System using the empirical completeness method.

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Authors: Zeng, X., et al.

Publication date: 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Medicine


Monitoring progress in reducing maternal mortality using verbal autopsy methods in vital registration systems: what can we conclude about specific causes of maternal death? thumbnail
Monitoring progress in reducing maternal mortality using verbal autopsy methods in vital registration systems: what can we conclude about specific causes of maternal death?

Reducing maternal mortality is a key focus of development strategies and one of the indicators used to measure progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. In the absence of medical certification of the cause of deaths that occur in the community, verbal autopsy (VA) methods are the only available means to assess levels and trends of maternal deaths that occur outside health facilities.

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Authors: Riley, I.D., et al.

Publication date: 2019

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Medicine


Thumbnail_#284_MCCODVAIntegration_BMJ
Monitoring progress with national and subnational health goals by integrating verbal autopsy and medically certified cause of death data

The measurement of progress towards many Sustainable Development Goals and other health goals requires accurate and timely all-cause and cause of death (COD) data. However, existing guidance to countries to calculate these indicators is inadequate for populations with incomplete death registration and poor-quality COD data. This paper introduces a replicable method to estimate national and subnational cause-specific mortality rates (and hence many such indicators) where death registration is incomplete by integrating data from Medical Certificates of Cause of Death for hospital deaths with routine verbal autopsy for community deaths.

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Thumbnail_MortSurvPNG
Mortality surveillance and verbal autopsy strategies: experiences, challenges and lessons learnt in Papua New Guinea

Full notification of deaths and compilation of good quality cause of death data are core, sequential and essential components of a functional civil registration and vital statistics system. This paper discusses the challenges and lessons learnt following implementation of trial mortality surveillance activities in Papua New Guinea.

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Authors: Hart, J D, Kwa, V, Dadulala, P, Ripa, R, Frank, D, Lei, T, Moiya, N, Lagani, W, Adair, T, McLaughlin, D, Riley, I, Lopez, A D.

Publication date: December 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMJ Global Health


Preliminary results of strengthening the national death registry information system of Peru thumbnail
Preliminary results of strengthening the national death registry information system of Peru

Peru has low coverage of deaths with a cause (54%) and about 30% of causes of death are classified as poorly-defined or not very useful for the formulation of public policies. In response to these problems, the Ministry of Health together with other government agencies, with the support of D4H, is implementing the National Death Registry Information System (SINADEF). The objective of this article is to describe the process of strengthening the mortality information system in Peru, focused on the implementation of SINADEF. Since the implementation of SINADEF in August 2016 until July 2018, 28,407 users of the SINADEF application have been created and a total of 122,411 deaths have been registered. The quality of data recording, including the cause of death, has been improved, while low coverage of deaths with a cause of death still persists.

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Authors: Vargas-Herrera J, Ruiz KP, Nunez GG, Ohno JM, Perez-Lu, JE, Huarcaya WV, Clapham B, Cortez-Escalante J

Publication date: October 2018

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Related resources: Peru: An exceptional example of CRVS system advancement

Source: Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2018; 35(3):505-14


Reducing ignorance about who dies of what: research and innovation to strengthen CRVS systems thumbnail
Reducing ignorance about who dies of what: research and innovation to strengthen CRVS systems

Overview paper for a CRVS series published in BMC Medicine. The article collection provides an overview of recent innovations, progress, viewpoints and key areas in which action is still required – notably around the need for better systems and procedures to notify the fact of death and to reliably diagnose its cause, both for deaths in hospital and elsewhere.

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Authors: Lopez, A D, McLaughlin, D, Richards, N

Publication date: March 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Medicine


Resultados preliminares del fortalecimiento del Sistema Informatico Nacional de Defunciones thumbnail
Resultados preliminares del fortalecimiento del Sistema Informatico Nacional de Defunciones

El Perú tiene una baja cobertura de defunciones con causa de defunción (54 %) y una mala calidad del registro de las causas de defunción, mas de 45 % de las causas de muerte se clasifican como mal definidas o poco útiles para la formulación de políticas públicas. En respuesta a estos problemas, el Ministerio de Salud, junto a otras agencias gubernamentales, con el apoyo de la Iniciativa Bloomberg «Información para la Salud» está implementando el Sistema Informático Nacional de Defunciones (SINADEF). El objetivo de este artículo es describir el proceso de fortalecimiento del sistema de información de la mortalidad en Perú, centrado en la implementación del SINADEF.

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Authors: Vargas-Herrera J, Ruiz KP, Nunez GG, Ohno JM, Perez-Lu, JE, Huarcaya WV, Clapham B, Cortez-Escalante J

Publication date: October 2018

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Related resources: Peru: An exceptional example of CRVS system advancement

Source: Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2018; 35(3):505-14


Thumbnail_#191_Fellow Report_Shawon
Routine mortality surveillance to identify the cause of death pattern for out-of-hospital adult (aged 12+ years) deaths in Bangladesh: introduction of automated verbal autopsy

In Bangladesh, a poorly functioning national system of registering deaths and determining their causes leaves the country without important information on which to inform health programming. In 2017, an improved death registration system and automated verbal autopsy (VA) were introduced to 13 upazilas to assess the utility of VA as a routine source of policy-relevant information and to identify leading causes of deaths in rural Bangladesh. This study assesses the plausibility of the VA results using a series of demographic and epidemiological checks in the VIPER software tool. This paper is the research outcome of a CRVS Fellowship completed by Toufiq Shawon in November 2019.

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Authors: Shawon, M T H, Ashrafi, S A A, Azad, A K, Firth, S M, Chowdhury, H, Mswia, R G, Adair, T, Riley, I, AbouZahr, C, Lopez, A D

Publication date: March 2021

Resource type: CRVS clearinghouse

Source: PMC Public Health, 21:491 [creative commons attribution license https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/]


Saving lives through certifying deaths: assessing the impact of two interventions to improve cause of death data in Perú thumbnail
Saving lives through certifying deaths: assessing the impact of two interventions to improve cause of death data in Perú

Mortality statistics derived from cause of death data are an important source of information for population health monitoring, priority setting and planning. However, the quality of cause of death data is poor. In August 2016, the Ministry of Health of Perú decided to make two specific interventions to improve cause of death data: to introduce an online death certification system and to train doctors in standard death certification practices. This study demonstrates how the two interventions improved the correctness of death certificates. The study also provides evidence on necessary changes to the training program to address the poor certification practices that have remained after implementation of the online system.

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Authors: Miki J, Rampatige R, Richards N, Adair T, Cortez-Escalante J, Vargas-Herrera J

Publication date: December 2018

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Related resources: Fellowship profile: Assessing the impact of death certification interventions in Peru

Source: BMC Public Health https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6264-1 


The 'Ten CRVS Milestones' framework for understanding CRVS systems
The 'Ten CRVS Milestones' framework for understanding CRVS systems

Describes how CRVS systems function, including key processes that must be accomplished. Provides an understanding of system strengths and weaknesses.

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Authors: Muñoz DC, AbouZahr C, de Savigny D

Publication date: February 2018

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Related resources: Understanding CRVS systems: The importance of process mapping

Source: BMJ Global Health


Where there is no hospital: improving the notification of community deaths thumbnail
Where there is no hospital: improving the notification of community deaths

This paper presents case studies in four countries (Bangladesh, Colombia, Myanmar and Papua New Guinea) that were part of the initial phases of the Bloomberg Data for Health Initiative at the University of Melbourne, each of which faces unique challenges to community death registration.

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Authors: Adair, T, Rajasekhar, M, Bo, K S, Hart, J, Kwa, V, Mukut M A A, Reeve, M, Richards, N, Ronderos-Torres, M, de Savigny, D, Cobos Muñoz, D, Lopez, A D

Publication date: March 2020

Resource type: CRVS peer-reviewed publication

Source: BMC Medicine

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